© 2017 by Amsterdam Religion Cognition and Behavior Lab

Identifying Unbelievers

The different forms of religious unbelief are still much of an open question. Using data (N=4404) from three European countries, Finland, Denmark and the Netherlands, we sought to identify underlying unbeliever groups among those with the strongest disbelief in God (N=2258). Latent class analyses were conducted on the non-theistic supernatural beliefs of this subsection of participants, resulting in the same three unbeliever groups in each country: analytic atheists, spiritual but not religious (SBNR) and nonbelievers. Next, we explored these groups on a variety of dimensions, especially on the group members' attitudes to religion, certainty of beliefs, cognitive dispositions, and world view.


The first results of this study have been submitted as a manuscript and will be published online.